From a political history viewpoint, the period can be divided into three: the Early Stage from the transfer of the capital to Heijokyo in 710 to Nagayao no hen (conspiracy of Prince Nagaya) in 729, the Middle Stage from the arbitrary exertion of power by four brothers of the Fujiwara family to the rebellion by FUJIWARA no Nakamaro in 764, and the Later Stage from administration by Dokyo and the Empress Koken (also known as Shotoku) onwards. It contains Waka from the Nara period (after the reigns of Emperor Jome and Empress Suiko) and the Nara period. The ritsuryo kokka in this period maintained control of the people through koseki (the household registers) and keicho (the yearly tax registers) and imposed soyocho (taxes) and military service. Rise of BuddhismIn the Nara period, Buddhism developed thanks to protection by the government as well as the ideology of Chingo kokka and Hoe (Buddhist mass) and prayers to protect the nation were often held. However, only Shonai region in present-day Yamagata Prefecture and areas south of central Miyagi Prefecture were stably incorporated into ritsuryo kokka at the beginning of the eighth century. These coins were called Kocho-Junisen (twelve coins of the Imperial Court). Prosperity and decay of Nakamaro's governmentIn the meantime, FUJIWARA no Nakamaro (son of Muchimaro) from the Southern House of the Fujiwara clan, who successfully gained the confidence of the Empress Komyo, accumulated power and organized a Shibi chudai (office responsible for affairs of the Empress Komyo). The completion and changes of the ritsuryo kokkaIn the first half of the Nara period, Taiho Ritsuryo - drafted by Osakabe no Miko (Prince Osakabe) and others and completed and enforced in 701 - was the fundamental law of Japan. Buddhism came to Japan during the Asuka period, 538-710, as did the Chinese writing system. The Asuka Period name derives from the capital at that time, Asuka, located in the northern Nara prefecture. In November 711, in an attempt to promote its circulation, the government issued the Chikusen joirei which gave Ikai (Court rank) to persons who saved up a specified amount of coins. The Dokyo Incident and Emperor KoninIn 765, Dokyo became daijodaijin zenji (grand minister of state and master of Zen Buddhism) and the next year, the Emperor of Buddhist Law. It was mainly revision of words and clauses and its basis was Taiho Ritsuryo, however its enforcement was delayed until 757, under the leadership of FUJIWARA no Nakamaro. However, resistance against such control was also strong and in 720, YAKO no Maro, the Governor of Osumi Province established seven years previously, was killed. The period was preceded by the Asuka Period of Japan. The basis for this decision was that construction of a grand capital would show emperor's virtue to foreign envoys, frontiersmen such as Ezo and Hayato, and local clans and people. Relation with EzoEven today there are various theories as to what kind of people the Ezo were. In contrast, for the "Nihongi (Nihon Shoki)," composed of 30 volumes and a roll of genealogical chart, compiled and offered to the emperor in 720, KI no Kiyohito and MIYAKE no Fujimaro in 714 selected accounts from provincial historical literature from the mythological age to the Empress Jito, and then Imperial Prince Toneri and his assistants edited the work. Immediately after the disturbance, the Fujiwara clan succeeded in making a daughter of Fuhito, Komyoshi (Empress Komyo), the first retainer to become Empress. "The "Kojiki," which is believed to have been completed in 712, was a record of histories which the Emperor Tenmu ordered HIETA no Are to memorize based on 'Teiki' (records of Emperor's family tree) and 'Kyuji' (a record of stories current at court) and recorded by O no Yasumaro. The era came to an end when the Emperor Kanmu (737 – 806) decided to move the capital shortly after the death of the Empress Kōken (718 – 770), in an attempt to remove the court from the intrigues and power plays of the Buddhist establishment at Nara . It was a country worthy of the name 'small empire of eastern barbarians' and classified its sphere of sovereignty as 'kenai,' everywhere outside of this as 'kegai' and further classified kegai into Tang (defined as a 'neighboring country') 'shoban' (literally, miscellaneous barbarians, consisting of kingdoms in Korea: Silla and Balhae in this period) and 'Iteki,' including Ezo (northerners), Hayato (an ancient tribe in Kyushu) and inhabitants in southern islands. In 699, Mino-jo Castle and Inazumi-jo Castle were constructed and ritsuryo kokka began to apply control backed by military force. Later, ri was changed to go. and "Manyoshu. In 729, the four brothers of Fujiwara slandered Nagayao, who had been promoted to sadaijin (minister of the left) as 'endangering the nation with the ways of the left' and forced him to commit suicide (an event known as Nagayao no Hen), grasping the reins of government. Though the Nara period political system continued to exist as the outward, official form of economic control, in reality there was a return to the old Asuka style uji and be. However, it did not work as motivation for farmers to reclaim rice fields and thus it did not progress as expected. SummaryIn 710, the national capital was transferred to Heijokyo in Nara. In 752, Retired Emperor Shomu Daijo, the Empress Komyo and his daughter Empress Koken visited Todai-ji Temple and held a ceremony to consecrate the daibutsu. Empress Koken was enthroned again as Shotoku and constructed Saidai-ji Temple (Nara City). Whilst these classifications were set forth in ritsuryo codes, boasted about and strived for, it's another question altogether whether they were actually realized in the relationship with Tang and the Korean kingdoms. The Heian period was preceded by the Nara period and began in 794 after the movement of the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō (present-day Kyoto) by the 50th emperor, Emperor Kammu (Kammu Tennō). Chikusen joirei was a kind of Baikan sei (system of selling government posts) and, therefore storing away of coins was promoted all the more, sometimes hindering the smooth exchange of currency. From the ruin of Dazaifu, mokkan (a narrow strip of wood on which an official message is written) with characters 'Amamishima' (Amami-Oshima Island) and 'Irabu-jima' (Oki-no-erabujima Island) was unearthed and vestiges of the manufacture of spoons with shells of yakogai were found in Kominato, Fuwaganeku ruins in Amami City of Amami Oshima Island. It contains myths and traditions and stories up until the Empress Suiko and it also recorded a large number of songs. As a countermeasure, the ritsuryo government dispatched a large-scale corps headed by OTOMO no Tabito as daishogun (commander in chief), and the Hayato people were suppressed by the next year. In 718, FUJIWARA no Fuhito and others were ordered to draft a new Yoro Ritsuryo (Yoro Code). With this transfer of the capital, the Nara period completely ended and the Heian period commenced. 'In the middle of the seventh century, ABE no Hirafu and others made expeditions and it is believed that they reached as far as present-day Akita and Tsugaru regions or even further North. In addition, as Goki shichido (lit. The Nara period (奈良時代, Nara jidai) of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794. At that time, castles and josakukanga (a castle-like facility used as governmental office) were constructed and people called Kinohe, forced to immigrate from Kanto and Hokuriku regions, lived around such castles and josakukanga, and were engaged in farming. Local administrative organizations were standardized as kuni (Province), gun (County) and ri. People in these areas were known as Kumaso in ancient times and, since the middle of the seventh century, Hayato. In the Tohoku region, Taga-jo Castle, Dewa no saku, etc. 'These were local reports which were composed of descriptions of local products, natural features such as mountains and rivers as well as their history and legends as told by old people. Shoen were mainly Yusoden, which were rice fields subject to taxation, and known as shoki shoen (literally, shoen in initial stage). Domestically, its aims were simply consolidation of centralized control and creation of a little 'Chinese-style empire' by eastern barbarians. china in 849. Because of this, the envoys' route had to be changed several times. In place of him, FUJIWARA no Nagate from the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan, FUJIWARA no Yoshitsugu and FUJIWARA no Momokawa from the Ceremonial House of the Fujiwara clan made rapid progress. The powerful aristocratic families functioning like the old uji, the shoen like their domains, and the workers and managers of the estates functionally like the old be. The new capital was named as Heijo-kyo(平城京). In 755, he took over control of the government from TACHIBANA no Moroe and in 757 he ousted TACHIBANA no Naramaro, who was a son of Moroe (TACHIBANA no Naramaro no hen). Soon, the monk Dokyo came onto the scene having successfully won the favor of the Retired Empress Koken. Major cultural development of the era include the permanent establishment of Buddhism along with the first authentically Japanese gardens built in the city Nara at the end of the eighth century. 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